What is a submarine?

The submarine belongs to a special class of warships, with the ability to swim under water, maneuvering at the rate and depth. As a physical object, it is subject to the law Archimedes: the body, submerged in liquid, has a force directed upwards and marginalized them equal weight of the liquid. This «lift force» can be controlled through weight boats. For submarine underboard water immersion was adopted in its ballast tanks. To submarine surfaced — their drainage produces compressed air. That's why we distinguish between two underwater ship tonnage — surface (normal), and underwater. A boat at large depth is tremendous pressure. Its corpus, including manned space and basic mechanisms are cylindrical and made of thick stainless steel or titanium alloy with stiffening ribs. It is called durable shell. To improve the quality of nautical boats at the top of the solid «wearing» light corpus. In the interval between them are usually ballast tanks and fuel tanks. This boat is called double. If a light is not completely shell surrounds a solid — it belongs to one and a half case spacecrafts. There are single boat. To improve the survivability of its submarines solid corps transverse watertight bulkheads divided into several autonomous bays (three to ten). The boat was under water suspended. Her movement up and down is controlled horizontal bow and stern rudders. When the front edge of the blade above the rear rudder, running water flow creates elevating force. If on the contrary, counterclaim flow pressures on the working plane of the blade from top to bottom. Motionless boat uncontrollable and either should emerge, or by dialing extra ballast, lie on the ground. Movement submarines forward or backward, like every ship, depends on what side of the screw rotates. Turn left — right being the change in vertical rudder in the stern. Submarine fall into diesel-electric and nuclear-powered. Lack of first — a limited period of stay under water. Their main engine — diesel, which works on Solar, requires constant influx of oxygen. Therefore, it is usually used only for the surface of the fairway. Under the water the boat was moving at the electric motor, fed batteries. Battery capacity is small, and the boat floated periodically accounted for charging a diesel generator. Since the Second World War there was a device for diesel engine work under water in a small depth — snorkel. Simply put, this pipe to the surface for a proposed fence air. The valve prevents ingress of water into the system. No close snorkel caused the death of one submarine. Nuclear reactor without replenishment uranium can continuously provide energy for years. Water, turned his warmth in pairs, steam turbine rotates. That, in turn, driven the boat and through Turbogenerator produces electric current. Using huge energy resources of nuclear energy from sea water readily available air, always so scarce on submarines. Office submarine concentrated in the central office, located in the middle of the hull under the military cuttings. Through it or pass near sliding device. Foremost among these is the periscope, allowing water from the sea to monitor the situation. When he raised, the head of the lens above the water. Through a system of lenses and prisms image is transmitted inside the submarine. Periscope depth is not more than a few metres. The ship, which is deeper, can rely only with the help of the hydroacoustic funds. Form of Packaging boats until the second half of the twentieth century, more suitable for swimming on the surface because they are relatively briefly plunged. Modern submarines, on the other hand, tailored primarily to the underwater hydrodynamics. Their hometown element — the world of silence.